Independent distribution of hot and cold water pipes in an apartment or house is not easy, but it’s real. Even if you are going to hire a specialist, the main points you should know yourself, control will not hurt.
Today, in most cases, the distribution of pipes in the bathroom is made of plastic pipes - polypropylene for water supply, PVC for sewage
How to develop a layout of plumbing
First, determine the places where all consumers of cold and hot water will be located. It is better to do everything on the plan, but it can be noted on the spot. Not only the geometrical dimensions of the devices are important, but also the exact location of the place where the water should be brought.
Draw a plan with dimensions and distances - the first step
Many devices are connected to the water supply network using flexible hoses. Then the removal from the line can end 10-20 cm to the device. The main thing is that the junction is easily accessible. This is necessary for convenient and fast connection maintenance. This method of connection is implemented easier - there is no need to accurately calculate the length of the pipe.
There is also a rigid water supply to sanitary appliances or household appliances - pipes to the entrance itself. Such a connection is more difficult to perform, because this type of wiring is less common. Basically, so connect gas water heaters (columns), bathroom faucets, which are attached to the wall.
Outer or concealed gasket
The first step is to decide on the type of pipe laying - will they go on top or hidden in a wall or floor. Hidden wiring in the bathroom, the toilet is good from an aesthetic point of view - nothing is visible. But the pipes are inaccessible, to eliminate the leak will have to break the wall, which is not happy. Therefore, only whole pieces without joints are trying to be laid into the wall — less chance of leakage.
Hidden installation of water pipes in the process
There is one more difficulty with hidden installation of water supply system - the need for channels in the wall (gates) in which pipes are laid. Firstly, not every wall allows making pens in it. For example, in panel houses, where the wall thickness is only about 10 cm, it’s definitely not worth making a channel 5-6 cm deep. The plate will lose a significant part of the carrying capacity. What it threatens to explain, probably not. Secondly, laying of strobe in the wall - this work is not the easiest, even in the presence of a perforator takes a lot of time. So the cons of this option is more than enough.
Another type of hidden pipe liner is behind a false wall. To do this, retreating some distance from the main wall, install the frame, and on it drywall, which is then laid tile. The second option is false walls - from plastic panels.
You can hide the pipe behind a false wall
External wiring pipes from a practical point of view is better - everything in sight, available for repair at any time. But the aesthetic side suffers. To hide their communications, they all - plumbing and sewage - try to lay closer to the floor, then they build a drywall box with a removable lid or upper part. So all the pipes have free access, and they are almost invisible.
The outer gasket is not so aesthetic
Way of laying
In an apartment or house, water distribution is done in two ways - by connecting all consumers in series or by placing a collector, from which a separate pipe goes to each of the devices. Both options are not without flaws.
If the pipes are connected in series, it is not enough, but if more than two plumbing devices are connected in a row, their simultaneous operation may not be sufficient. This type of wiring is also called a tepnik - all branches from the main trunk pipe are made with the help of tees (sometimes - crosses or corners).
Consistently connected consumers
When the collector distribution of water pipes takes a lot, in addition, additional equipment is required - a collector for water supply. So this pipe wiring scheme is a costly undertaking, but the pressure on all connected devices, regardless of the number of workers, is the same.
Parallel connection - each device has its own line from the collector
There is another nuance: a large number of pipes must be placed somewhere, and it is compact, and this is not at all easy. Therefore, this type of wiring is more often used with hidden installation or when it is open, but in those places that require such a connection or can be covered with furniture.
For example, only two appliances are connected in a bathroom or toilet. There you can make a serial layout. The kitchen is connected column (boiler), faucet at the sink, washing machine and dishwasher. Here, in this case, it makes sense to put a collector in the kitchen, and from it to separate individual branches of water supply to all consumers. This method of connection is called mixed - part of the water supply system is diluted with tees, part from the collector.
Hot and cold water pipes are laid in parallel.
Please note that if both cold and hot water are installed at the same time, the pipelines are laid in parallel. In case of a wound eyeliner, it makes sense to turn the DHW pipe into heat insulation - the water will then really be hot and you will not heat the walls. If the pipes are polypropylene or plastic, it is not so critical - polymers have a low coefficient of heat transfer. For metal (any - steel, stainless steel, galvanized, copper) heat insulation is very desirable.
Pipe layout: rules
As in any business, plumbing has its own rules. There are they when laying water supply. If you are going to do the installation of a water supply system for yourself, whether you decide to comply with them or not, it is better to do everything correctly. The rules have their own logic, which is followed by the majority:
- The pipes should run in parallel, it is better that they do not intersect. Lay them better not diagonally, but vertically and horizontally. This rule is especially important when flush mounting - so you will know where the pipes go and you will not make a hole in them when you try to hang anything / fix it on the wall.
- It is desirable to have free access to the joints and joints.
- Each tap before a sanitary appliance or household appliances ends with a shut-off (ball) valve. It is necessary so that you can remove or repair the device, do not shut off the water supply to other consumers.
- When distributing plumbing in the apartment, after the riser it is necessary to install a coarse filter (further filters are optional, but this one should be).
Pipe layout is different diameters
- When distributing the pipeline, each branch is made smaller by a step diameter. This is necessary to maintain a stable pressure. For example, the scheme is sequential, assembled from polypropylene. The riser is 32 mm, the outlet from it is 20 mm, to the consumers (appliances and sanitary equipment) it takes 16 mm.
If you look closely, you will see that most of the water pipes are made according to these rules.
Which pipes for plumbing better
It is unambiguous to say which pipes are best for not making wiring - there is no ideal material, there is more or less suitable for these conditions. Let us dwell on the most popular options, their advantages and disadvantages:
The option is good for everyone, except for large thermal expansion - up to 5 cm by 1 meter, which is a lot. With a long road installation of a compensator or the use of reinforced pipes is necessary. They have thermal expansion at times less, but the prices are higher. For hot water, you definitely need to use reinforced pipes, but with fiberglass or foil, you decide. The routing of cold-water pipes can be done by an ordinary CPD pipe for cold water - here thermal expansion is not so critical.
Polypropylene pipes for distributing plumbing - an excellent choice
About the choice of pipes made of polypropylene, read here.
Another moment that is relevant, if you do the work with your own hands, you are going to make a hidden laying of communications - the quality of the connections. In principle, there is nothing difficult in the soldering of polypropylene, but without experience you can “nakosyachit”, as a result, after a while the connection can leak. In the absence of experience in the welding of polypropylene to hide the connection under the finish is very undesirable. In this case, it is better to choose an open way of laying.
Wiring polypropylene pipes in the bathroom and toilet has many positive points:
- correctly made connection turns out monolithic;
- no narrowing of the diameters of the pipeline at the soldering points;
- high maintainability;
- long service life;
- ease of installation.
In general, this material has been so popular lately.
PVC for plumbing
When distributing PVC pipes use adhesive bonding. There is a special glue that dissolves the top layer of the polymer. They are lubricated with both parts glued together, pressed against one another and kept for some time. As a result, the connection is almost monolithic, durable and reliable.
PVC pipes can bend
There are two types of connections: a butt joint, when two lengths of pipe are joined and using fittings. It is easier to work with fittings, but the joints are narrowed. With a butt joint there is no narrowing, but it is much more difficult to make qualitatively.
In principle, all the pros and cons here are the same, a few drawbacks are added - only suitable for transporting only cold media - no more than + 40 ° C, that is, other pipes will have to be used for hot water supply. Scratches and chips reduce the strength of the pipe, which eliminates the threaded connection.
Plumbing of plastic pipes is also suitable for hot water supply - it can withstand temperatures up to + 105 ° C. A positive difference from all the above is its high plasticity - these pipes can be bent with a rather small radius. This simplifies and reduces the cost of installation (fittinggy expensive).
Metal - not the best choice
The minus of using metal-plastic pipes for water supply is a strong narrowing at the joints - in fittings. This leads to a significant decrease in pressure in the system. This is what limits their use.
The layout of the pipes in each apartment, even in a typical house, is individual - the plumbing and household appliances are differently arranged, of course, and the scheme will be different. In fact, everything is not so difficult, you just have to decide on the main parameters of the scheme - where you need to bring water and the type of wiring - in parallel you will pull or sequentially. Then everything is dictated by the position of consumers. To make it a little easier to add a few more schemes and photos.
Example of pipe distribution according to collector scheme
The peculiarity of this scheme is that a thicker pipe from the DHW goes to the heated towel rail. Made it to provide better heat.
An example of sequential layout - a complete set at the entrance to the apartment for increased security
When approaching the place of installation of the mixer must accurately maintain the distance
When flush-mounted plumbing part of the pipe can be hidden in the floor. It will be impossible to repair them, but it's beautiful ...
Pipes laid in parallel
A valve is placed on each outlet.
The way to hide the pipes in the bathroom, laid along the wall